Observations using the Arecibo S-band (2380 MHz, 12.6 cm) planetary radar system began in 1976 and its power and sensitivity were greatly improved with the telescope upgrade and Gregorian-dome installation in the mid-1990s. Below, we show the number of near-Earth asteroids attempted and detected since the radar program resumed in 1998. At first, observations of a couple dozen objects were attempted per year, mostly the largest and/or closest targets, especially those classified as asteroids potentially hazardous to Earth (PHAs). In 2011, the radar program became fully funded funded through the NASA Near-Earth Object Observations program and there was a push to observe more objects, especially smaller asteroids that are of interest for missions by robotic or manned spacecraft or those that could cause significant regional, rather than global, damage in the event of an impact.
In 2019, we detected 125 near-Earth objects (out of 163 attempts; including one comet) despite transmitting less than half our maximum power and continuing to recover from the damage done by Hurricane Maria, which reduced the sensitivity of the telescope by approximately 30% at the wavelength of the radar. Some objects were not detected because they are simply too small and/or too far away even for our giant telescope to detect, but """you miss 100% of the shots you don't take. --Wayne Gretzky" --Michael Scott" --#TeamRadar"
Small asteroids specifically of interest to NASA for possible future robotic or crewed missions are termed Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) compliant. The number of NHATS objects detected with Arecibo similarly jumped in 2012.
As we push to observe smaller and fainter targets with Arecibo, the mean and median absolute magnitudes of the detected objects have increased to H ~ 23 and 24, respectively, equivalent to diameters of roughly 70 +/- 30 meters.
As we increase the cadence of observations, many of our targets are recently discovered asteroids (RDAs) observed as targets of opportunity during previously scheduled radar tracks, urgently proposed targets, or during pre-planned "survey" nights scheduled near new moon when optical survey programs are most efficient. Roughly 60-70 % of asteroids detected with Arecibo, dozens per year, are those on their discovery apparition.
For illustrations of individual targets' radar observations, see the Arecibo Radar Atlas hosted by the Lunar and Planetary Institute. For lists and statistics of all asteroids and comets observed using planetary radar systems (including Goldstone Solar System radar in California), see the websites of the planetary radar groups at Jet Propulsion Laboratory or UCLA.